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Lithium-Ion Battery 

Lithium-ion batteries Type

Lithium-ion batteries are a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode (anode) to the positive electrode (cathode) during discharge, and from the cathode to the anode during charge. Lithium-ion batteries are common in portable consumer electronics because of their high energy-to-weight ratios, lack of memory effect, and slow self-discharge when not in use.

The three primary functional components of a lithium-ion battery are the anode, cathode, and electrolyte, for which a variety of materials may be used.

Commercially, the most popular material for the anode is graphite. The cathode is generally one of three materials: a layered oxide (such as lithium cobalt oxide), one based on a polyanion (such as lithium iron phosphate), or a spinel (such as lithium manganese oxide), although materials such as TiS2 (titanium disulfide) originally were also used.

Depending on the choice of material for the anode, cathode, and electrolyte, the voltage, capacity, life, and safety of a lithium-ion battery can change dramatically.

Cathode Material

Typica
Voltage

 (V)

Energy Density

Characteristics

Gravimetric
(Wh/Kg)

Volumetric
(Wh/L)

Thermal Stability

Cycle
 Life

Cost

Safety
Characteristic
s

Cobalt Oxide
LiCoO2LCO

3.7

195

560

Poor

Low

High

Low

Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Li2NixCoy Al(1-x-y)O2
(NCA)

3.6

220

600

Fair

Middle

Middle

Low

Nickel Cobalt Manganese Oxide Li2NixCoy Mn(1-x-y)O2

NCM

3.6

205

580

Fair

High

Middle

Low

Manganese Oxide
Li2Mn2O4 LMO

3.9

150

420

Good

Middle

Low

Middle

Iron Phosphate (LFP) LiFePO4 LFP

3.2

90-130

333

Very
Good

High

Low

High

Lithium Nickel Oxide 
LiNiO2LNO)

3.6

160

500

Good

Low

High

Low


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